Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Page: 59-67
2017 Iraqi Kurdistan’s Referendum for Independence: Causes and Impacts
Zhao Changfeng, School of Political Science and International Studies, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, P. R. China
Otenia Temitayo, School of Political Science and International Studies, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, P. R. China
Received: Dec. 19, 2017;       Accepted: Jan. 20, 2018;       Published: Jun. 13, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.hss.20180602.13      View  903      Downloads  78
Abstract
On 20 November 2017, Iraqi Supreme Court has declared illegal the Iraqi Kurdistan referendum. This seems to put an end to the disagreement between Baghdad and Erbil and the long struggle of Iraqi Kurds to independence. The Kurdish issue has long haunted the Middle East, and the efforts of the Kurds to have a nation of their own have had a profound impact on the political landscape of the Middle East region. On September 25, 2017, the Iraqi Kurdish Autonomous Region held a referendum to decide whether to be independent or not. The results were opposed by the international community, especially by the neighboring countries of Iraq. This is mainly due to the fear of spillover effects on their own populations and the impact on the Middle East. This paper analyzes the causes and the consequences of the independence referendum on Iraqi Kurdish Autonomous Region relations with Iraq’s central government, geopolitics in the Middle East and anti-terrorism war.
Keywords
Iraq, Kurds, Independence Referendum, Middle East
To cite this article
Zhao Changfeng, Otenia Temitayo, 2017 Iraqi Kurdistan’s Referendum for Independence: Causes and Impacts, Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 59-67. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20180602.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
On 27th September 2017, Foreign Ministry’s spokesman Lu Kang held a press conference
[2]
“Barzani to Kurds: Vote in referendum to secure future”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 12th October 2017.
[3]
“Comment by the Information and Press Department on the referendum in Iraqi Kurdistan”, http://www.mid.ru/, retrieved on 4th October 2017.
[4]
“Erdogan, Rouhani united in opposition to Kurdish state”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[5]
“Iran and Iraq to hold joint border drills”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 8th October 2017.
[6]
“Iraq Kurdish vote may benefit Syrian Kurds, say their leaders”, https://www.reuters.com/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[7]
“Iraq, Turkey forces in joint drills after Kurdish vote”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 10th October 2017.
[8]
“Iraqi forces plan takeover of Kurdish region's borders”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 4th October 2017.
[9]
“Iraqi Kurdish referendum: UN warns of ‘destabilizing impact’”, http://www.bbc.com/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[10]
“Iraqi Kurdistan Regional Government's Referendum”, https://www.state.gov/, retrieved on 3rd October 2017.
[11]
“Iraqi Kurds must give up on independence or go hungry - Erdogan”, http://www.bbc.com/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[12]
“Iraqi Kurds under pressure after independence vote”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 4th October 2017.
[13]
“Kurdish leader Barzani: Independence will not disrupt fight against ISIL”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 10th October 2017.
[14]
“Kurdish leader Barzani: Independence will not disrupt fight against ISIL”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 10th October 2017.
[15]
“Loss of focus in fighting Islamic State after Kurdish referendum: coalition spokesman”, https://www.reuters.com/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[16]
“Turkey's Erdogan says Iraqi Kurdish authorities "will pay price" for vote”, http://www.reuters.com/, retrieved on 3rd October 2017.
[17]
“UN chief voices concern over ‘potentially destabilizing effects’ of Kurdish referendum”, http://www.un.org/, retrieved on 4th October 2017.
[18]
Explaining the Restless Middle East, http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2017-09/30/content_1808819.htm, retrieved on 11th October 2017.
[19]
Explaining the Restless Middle East, http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2017-09/30/content_1808819.htm, retrieved on 15th October 2017.
[20]
Analysis: This is a new Syria, not a new Kurdistan, Middle East Eye, http://middleeasteye.net/, retrived on 15th November 2017.
[21]
Carole A. O’Leary (2002), THE KURDS OF IRAQ: RECENT HISTORY, FUTURE PROSPECTS, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 6, No. 4.
[22]
Ceng Sagnic (2010), Mountain Turks: State ideology and the Kurds in Turkey, Information, Society and Justice, Volume 3 No. 2, pp 127-134.
[23]
Christopher M. Blanchard (2017), “Kurds in Iraq Propose Controversial Referendum on Independence”, Congressional Research Service Reports on the Middle East and the Arab World, https://fas.org/, retrieved on 7th October 2017.
[24]
David McDowall (2007), A modern History of the Kurds, New York: I. B. Taurus, pp 231-248.
[25]
Dr Jawad Mella (2005), Kurdistan and the Kurds: A divided homeland and a nation without State, London: Western Kurdistan Associations Publications, p 23.
[26]
Jemal Nebez (2004), The Kurds History and Culture, London: Western Kurdistan Association Publications.
[27]
Jordi Tejel (2009), Syria’s Kurds History, politics and Society, New York: Routledge.
[28]
Kemal Kirisci, Gareth Winrow (1997), The Kurdish Question and Turkey: an example of a trans-state ethnic conflict, Routledge, p 101.
[29]
Le Kurdistan dispose d’environ 3% des réserves mondiales de pétrole, http://fr.sputniknews.com/, retrieved on 15th November 2017.
[30]
Lorenzo Kamel, “Kurdish independence vote: A historical perspective”, http://www.aljazeera.com/, retrieved on 4th October 2017.
[31]
Yacin Dusman (2014), Remembering the “forgotten” Kurds in Syria, http://www.e-ir.info/, retrieved on 7th November 2017.
[32]
Iraqi Autonomous Region is disappointed by the ineffective talks with Bagdad, http://sputniknews.cn/, retrieved on 10th October 2017.
[33]
Liu Sherong (2016) "Reasons for Iraqi Kurds’ high degree of autonomy and perspectives", "Xin Xibu", No, p 104. (Translation of the authors).
[34]
Wang Tieya (1981), Internaltional Law, Law Publishing House, p 61 (Translated by the authors).
[35]
Dong Manyuan (2017) "Kurdish issue and the situation of the Middle East", Guoji Wenti Yanjiu, No 4, p 42 (Translated by the authors).
Browse journals by subject