Volume 7, Issue 4, July 2019, Page: 138-146
Policy to Prevent and Combat Cyber-crime in Africa
Izabela Oleksiewicz, Department of Security Science, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland
Received: Jul. 8, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 6, 2019;       Published: Aug. 23, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.hss.20190704.13      View  48      Downloads  23
The global nature of the Internet has enabled extremely fast communication and transfer of most forms of human activity to the network, including those negatively received. Cyberspace is increasingly being spoken of as a new social space in which the same problems are reflected in the real world. Cybercrime is therefore a modern form of crime, exploiting the possibilities of digital techniques and the environment of computer networks. The research subject of this article is the policy of combating and preventing the phenomenon of cybercrime, while the research subject is Africa. At the beginning, the following research hypotheses were adopted: the slow pace of economic development of African countries is conditioned by the lack of appropriate legal regulations in the field of policy against cybercrime. This favors the development of economic cybercrime, which in turn testifies to the lack of measurement and control tools to limit and counter the very phenomenon of cybercrime in this area. Secondly, more importantly, the slow pace of ratification of international agreements also indicates that it will probably take longer than originally assumed that appropriate instruments of public international law could be legally binding within the African Union. Thirdly, the assumption was made that Africa is a potential for future economic development. In turn, the increase in the absorption and use of the Internet will contribute to its economic growth over time, which will continue to lead to the growth of cybercrime. The author, within the framework of this, publication, tries to show institutional and legal deficiencies on selected examples and indicate scenarios for preventing this phenomenon.
Cyber-Terrorism, Policy, Prevent, Cyber-Security, Africa
To cite this article
Izabela Oleksiewicz, Policy to Prevent and Combat Cyber-crime in Africa, Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 138-146. doi: 10.11648/j.hss.20190704.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Littlejohn Shinder D., Tittel E., Cyberprzestępczość. Jak walczyć z łamaniem prawa w Sieci, Gliwice 2004, p. 25.
Skowera D., Akademia Cyberpolicyjna – Policja i organizacje międzynarodowe wobec wyzwań przestępczości internetowej, „Zarządzanie publiczne” Zeszyty Naukowe ISP UJ 2006, no 2, p. 142. Compare: Depa M., Pomykała M., Instytucjonalne aspekty przeciwdziałania cyberprzestępczości, [in:] Oleksiewicz I., Polinceusz M., Pomykała M. (ed.), Nowoczesne technologie - źródło zagrożeń i narzędzie ochrony bezpieczeństwa, Rzeszów 2014, p. 8.
See: Białoskórski R., Cyberzagrożenia w środowisku bezpieczeństwa XXI wieku. Zarys problematyki, Warszawa 2011, p. 63; Gniadek A., Cyberprzestępczość i cyberterroryzm – zjawiska szczególnie niebezpieczne, [in:] Jemioł T., Kisielnicki J., Rajchel K. (ed.), Cyberterroryzm. Nowe wyzwania XXI wieku, Warszawa 2009, p. 222.; Kosiński J., Waszczuk A., Cyberterroryzm a cyberprzestępczość, [in:], Bogdalski P., Nowakowski Z., Płusa T., Rajchel J., Rajchel K. (ed.), Współczesne zagrożenia bioterrorystyczne i cyberterrorystyczne a bezpieczeństwo narodowe Polski, Warszawa 2013, p 333.
Siwicki M., Cyberprzestępczość, Warszawa 2013, p. 20.
Siwicki M., Cyberprzestępczość, Warszawa 2013, p. 21.
See more: Polinceusz M., Pomykała M., Ochrona cyberbezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Kierunki zmian legislacyjnych na przestrzeni ostatnich lat, [in:], Bogdalski P., Nowakowski Z., Płusa T., Rajchel J., Rajchel K. (ed.), Współczesne zagrożenia …, op. cit., p. 660-661.
W. Krztoń, Walka o informacje w cyberprzestrzeni w XXI wieku, Warszawa 2017, p. 145.
Adamski A., Cyberprzestepczość - aspekty prawne i kryminologiczne, Studia Prawnicze Kwartalnik” 2005, no 4, p. 166.
Jak chińskie Politbiuro wojowało z Google. Retrieved on July 15, 2017 from http://www.tvn24.pl/wiadomosci-ze-swiata,2/jak-chinskie-politbiuro-wojowalo-z-google,154681.html
Ransomware, malware programmed to code data and block the access to its content. All computers have been infected in a similar manner and the displays showed the message forcing ransom in Bitcoin currency in return for unblocking the access.
Approximately 200 hacker attacks were believed to be pursued within four days. This cyber-attack contributed to losses estimated as high as 8 billion $. For more see also: Carson J., What is fake news? Its origins and how it grew in 2016, Retrieved on May 12, 2018 from: https://grassrootjournalist.org/2017/06/17/what-is-fake-news-its-origins-and-how-it-grew-in-2016/.
Crandall M., Soft security threats and small states: the case of Estonia, Defence studies”, 2014, vol. 14/1.
Harrel Y., Rosyjska cyberstrategia, Warszawa 2015, p. 206–208.
Harrel Y., Rosyjska cyberstrategia, Warszawa 2015 p. 201.
For more see: https://www.idgconnect.com/type/analysis-review/regions/africa (Retrieved on March 15, 2019).
Compare: Cybersecurity as an Economic Enabler, position paper. Retrieved on April 19, 2019 from https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/enisa-position-papers-and-opinions/cybersecurity-as-an-economic-enabler
Retrieved on March 15, 2019 from: https://www.coe.int/en/web/cybercrime/cybercrime-octopus.
Dz. U. 2003 no 3 item 25.
Government Gazette Staatskoerant, Republic of South Africa, Vol. 536, 19th February 2010, Pretori, No. 3296319.
Budapest, November 23, 2001, CETS no 185. The Convention was first developed at the end of the 90s of the 20th century and was open for ratification on November 23, 2001 in Budapest. Poland has just ratified the Convention.
Aleksandrowicz T. R., Liedel K., Społeczeństwo informacyjne – sieć – cyberprzestrzeń. Nowe zagrożenia, [in:] Liedel K., Piasecka P., Aleksandrowicz T. R. (ed.), Sieciocentryczne bezpieczeństwo. Wojna, pokój i terroryzm w epoce informacji, Warszawa 2014. Compare with the case of Ireland vs. Great Britain, January 18, 1978; the case of Soering vs. Great Britain, July 7, 1989, November 15, 1966; the case of Aksoy vs. Turkey, December 18, 1966; the case of Tomasi vs. France, August 27, 1992.
Balocco R., Ciappini A., Rangone A., ICT Governance: A Reference Framework, Information Systems Management” 2013, vol. 30/2, Carrapico H., A. Barrinha, The EU as coherent (cyber) security actor? Journal of Common Market Studies” 2017, vol. 55/6.
Lanzarote, October 25, 2007, CETS no 201. Poland signed the Convention on October 25, 2007 but did not ratify it.
Compare: M. Grobler, J. Jansen van Vuuren, L. Leenen, Implementation of a Cyber Security Policy in South Africa: Reflection on Progress and the Way Forward. Retrieved on March 15, 2019 from https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01525124/document.
Retrieved on March 16, 2019 from: https://au.int/sites/default/files/treaties/29560-sl-african_union_convention_on_cyber_security_and_personal_data_protection_2.pdf.
Browse journals by subject